George Chapman (1559?, Hitchin - 1634, London)
English poet and dramatist, whose translation of Homer long remained the standard English version. Chapman attended the University of Oxford but took no degree. By 1585 he was working in London for the wealthy commoner Sir Ralph Sadler and probably traveled to the Low Countries at this time.His first work was The Shadow of Night . . . Two Poeticall Hymnes (1593), followed in 1595 by Ovids Banquet of Sence. Both philosophize on the value of an ordered life. His poem in praise of Sir Walter Raleigh, De Guiana, Carmen Epicum ("An Epic Poem about Guiana," 1596), is typical of his preoccupation with the virtues of the warrior-hero, the character that dominates most of his plays. The first books of his translation of the Iliad appeared in 1598. It was completed in 1611, and his version of the Odyssey appeared in 1616. Chapman's Homer contains passages of great power and beauty and inspired the sonnet of John Keats "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer" (1815).
Chapman's conclusion to Christopher Marlowe's unfinished poem Hero and Leander (1598) emphasized the necessity for control and wisdom. Euthymiae Raptus; or the Teares of Peace (1609), Chapman's major poem, is a dialogue between the poet and the Lady Peace, who is mourning over the chaos caused by man's valuing worldly objects above integrity and wisdom.
Chapman was imprisoned with Ben Jonson and John Marston in 1605 for writing Eastward Ho, a play that James I, the king of Great Britain, found offensive to his fellow Scots. Of Chapman's dramatic works, about a dozen plays survive, chief of which are his tragedies: Bussy d'Ambois (1607), The Conspiracie, and Tragedie of Charles Duke of Byron . . . (1608), and The Widdowes Teares (1612).
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