Sandro Pertini was born in Stella (Savona) on 25 September 1896 and died in Rome on 25 February 1990. He graduated in Law and practised as a lawyer. He later took another degree in Political Science. In 1917, during the First World War, he served on the front. He joined the Socialist Party (PSI), and after demobilization devoted himself to politics. He published, at his own expense, a pamphlet entitled Under the barbarian Fascist domination, for which he was arrested on 27 May 1925, found guilty, and sentenced to eight months' imprisonment. In 1926 the Special Tribunal sentenced him to five years' internal exile. He managed to evade capture, and jointly with Parri and Carlo Rosselli he organized Turati's escape to Corsica. He lived in exile in France, in Paris and Nice, until 1929 when he was expelled after the police had discovered that he was broadcasting messages to Italy using his own radio transmitter. He was sentenced to 11 years' imprisonment, and in 1931 in the prison of Turi (near Bari) he met Antonio Gramsci, with whom he established a very close friendship. After the fall of Fascism, he fought against the Germans at Porta San Paolo in Rome. He was captured and sentenced to death, but managed to escape in 1944. On reaching Milan he became the Secretary of the Socialist Party in Occupied Italy and headed the Socialist Partisan Brigades. He was one of the leaders of the popular uprising on 25 April 1945. He worked as the Editor of the daily Avanti! until 1946 and from 1950 to 1952. He was elected to the Constituent Assembly, and in 1948 to the Senate where he became leader of the Socialist Group. From 1953 to 1978 he was elected continuously to the Chamber of Deputies, of which he became the Speaker on 5 June 1968. He was re-elected Speaker on 25 May 1972 and again on 4 July 1976. On 8 July 1978 he was elected President of the Republic. He was sworn in and delivered his Address to Parliament on 9 July 1978. On the expiry of the presidential term, on 29 June 1985 (the date her left office) he was appointed Life Senator.