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Thomas Jefferson (1743 - 1826)

In the thick of party conflict in 1800, Thomas Jefferson wrote in a private letter, "I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man." This powerful advocate of liberty was born in 1743 in Albermarle County, Virginia, inheriting from his father, a planter and surveyor, some 5,000 acres of land, and from his mother, a Randolph, high social standing. He studied at the College of William and Mary, then read law. In 1772 he married Martha Wayles Skelton, a widow, and took her to live in his partly constructed mountaintop home, Monticello. Freckled and sandy-haired, rather tall and awkward, Jefferson was eloquent as a correspondent, but he was no public speaker. In the Virginia House of Burgesses and the Continental Congress, he contributed his pen rather than his voice to the patriot cause. As the "silent member" of the Congress, Jefferson, at 33, drafted the Declaration of Independence. In years following he labored to make its words a reality in Virginia. Most notably, he wrote a bill establishing religious freedom, enacted in 1786. Jefferson succeeded Benjamin Franklin as minister to France in 1785. His sympathy for the French Revolution led him into conflict with Alexander Hamilton when Jefferson was Secretary of State in President Washington's Cabinet. He resigned in 1793. Sharp political conflict developed, and two separate parties, the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans, began to form. Jefferson gradually assumed leadership of the Republicans, who sympathized with the revolutionary cause in France. Attacking Federalist policies, he opposed a strong centralized Government and championed the rights of states. As a reluctant candidate for President in 1796, Jefferson came within three votes of election. Through a flaw in the Constitution, he became Vice President, although an opponent of President Adams. In 1800 the defect caused a more serious problem. Republican electors, attempting to name both a President and a Vice President from their own party, cast a tie vote between Jefferson and Aaron Burr. The House of Representatives settled the tie. Hamilton, disliking both Jefferson and Burr, nevertheless urged Jefferson's election. When Jefferson assumed the Presidency, the crisis in France had passed. He slashed Army and Navy expenditures, cut the budget, eliminated the tax on whiskey so unpopular in the West, yet reduced the national debt by a third. He also sent a naval squadron to fight the Barbary pirates, who were harassing American commerce in the Mediterranean. Further, although the Constitution made no provision for the acquisition of new land, Jefferson suppressed his qualms over constitutionality when he had the opportunity to acquire the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon in 1803. During Jefferson's second term, he was increasingly preoccupied with keeping the Nation from involvement in the Napoleonic wars, though both England and France interfered with the neutral rights of American merchantmen. Jefferson's attempted solution, an embargo upon American shipping, worked badly and was unpopular. Jefferson retired to Monticello to ponder such projects as his grand designs for the University of Virginia. A French nobleman observed that he had placed his house and his mind "on an elevated situation, from which he might contemplate the universe."
He died on July 4, 1826.

금융 기관들은 우리의 자유를 위해 군대 보다 더 위험하다고 나는 믿는다. 만일 미국인들이 사적인 은행들이그들의 화폐 문제를 첫 번째는 인플레이션, 두 번째는 디플레이션으로, 통제하다록 허용한다면 은행들을 에워싸고 성장하는 그 은행들과 회사들은 사람들의 ㅁ든 재산을 빼앗아 가게 될 것이다. 그들의 부모들이 싸워서 얻은 대륙에서 그들의 어린이들이 홈리스가 될 때 까지...
반대(의견)는 애국주의의 최고 형태다
신문에서 가장 신빙할만한 부분은 광고(들)이다
언론이 자유롭고, 모든 사람들이 읽을 수 있다면, 모든 것이 안전하다-토마스 제퍼슨
여러분들과 함께, 나는 은행이라는 기구는 상비군보다 더 위험하다고 생각한다
오직 \'잘못 된 것\' 만이 정부의 후원이 필요하다. \'당연한 진실\'은 스스로 존립할 수 있다
우리의 자유는 언론 자유만으로는 지켜질 수 없다. 언론 자유는 자유를 잃는 위험 없이는 제한될 수가 없다