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Heraclitus (540 BC - 480 BC)
Greek philosopher

Heraclitus of Ephesus , known as 'The Obscure,' was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher. He disagreed with Thales, Anaximander, and Pythagoras about the nature of the ultimate substance and claimed instead that everything is derived from the Greek classical element fire, rather than from air, water, or earth. This led to the belief that "change" is real, and stability illusory. For Heraclitus everything is "in flux".

He is famous for saying: "No man can cross the same river twice, because neither the man nor the river are the same."

Heraclitus' view that an explanation of change was foundational to any theory of nature was strongly opposed by Parmenides, who argued that change is an illusion and that everything is fundamentally static.

Only fragments of Heraclitus' writings have been found. He appears to have taught by means of small, oracular aphorisms meant to encourage thinking based on natural law and reason. The brevity and elliptic logic of his aphorisms earned Heraclitus the epithet 'Obscure'.

δεν είναι το καλύτερο πράγμα για τον άνθρωπο να αποκτά ό,τι επιθυμεί - Heraclitus
ἐὰν μὴ ἔλπηται ἀνέλπιστον οὐκ ἐξευρήσει, ἀνεξερεύνητον ἐὸν καὶ ἄπορον - Heraclitus
κάθε μία μας στιγμή δεν είναι ποτέ ίδια με μια άλλη, και εμείς δεν είμαστε ποτέ οι ίδιοι από τη μια στιγμή στην άλλη, από τον ένα χρόνο στον άλλο - Heraclitus
όσο κι αν περπατήσεις διασχίζοντας όλους τους δρόμους, δε θα μπορέσεις ποτέ να φθάσεις τα σύνορα της ψυχής: τόσο βαθύς είναι ο λόγος της - Heraclitus
τίποτε δεν αντέχει στο χρόνο όσο η αλλαγή - Heraclitus